ROERMOND, The Netherlands — The braking industry faces numerous challenges in the years ahead including meeting global regulations on particulate emissions. Recently Lapinus posted the following article by Adnan Sarfraz examining the impact of the Euro 7 standards on passenger-car pads.
How will the introduction of Euro 7 influence the Passenger Car Disc Pad
This article discusses the increased take-up of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles and what this means to manufacturers of cars, brake systems and brake pads.
Euro 7 is the latest emissions standard proposed by the European Commission that will apply to all newly registered passenger cars in the EU from 1 July 2025
Whereas in the past, the standards focused on exhaust emissions, Euro 7 will also regulate non-exhaust emissions from passenger cars for the first time. Euro 7 aims to limit the amount of particulate matter (PM) emitted from brake pads and tires, which can have substances that can pose a potential risk to human health. According to the proposed regulation, the limit for particulate matter emitted from passenger car brake pads will be 7 mg/km. The regulation is also proposed to be applied to all commercial vehicles as well, starting from July 2027. Homologation of brake systems for Euro 7 are being proposed to be tested in done following a United Nation General Technical Regulation (UN GTR).
The details are still being finalized by the International Working Group on Particle Measurement Program, but the proposed method for light vehicles is based on a modified Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). In order to follow Euro 7, the friction industry will have to develop innovative technologies and materials to reduce PM emissions while safeguarding braking performance.
Increasing electrification of cars is leading to an increased focus on contribution of non-exhaust emission. Earlier regulations primarily focused on exhaust emissions, which had a significant impact. The data collected by EEA shows the drop in overall emissions in EU27 from the year 2000 till 2020. When the data is split up into exhaust and non-exhaust emissions, it becomes apparent that starting from 2015, non-exhaust emissions have overtaken exhaust emissions. This trend
Electrification and Euro 7
Electric vehicles (EVs) are also affected by the Euro 7 emissions regulations. While EVs reduce emissions through regenerative braking, they still require friction brakes for safety and emergency situations. It is important to note that the homologation of a brake system is independent of the size of the car, which means that the same limit applies to all cars. However, for hybrid and electric cars a factor will be applied to the results of the WLTP testing done for that brake system. This factor compensates for the fact that EVs’ brake pads will not be used as often due to regenerative braking technology.
Although, the use of regenerative braking systems can effectively reduce emissions but might lead to corrosion of brake components due to reduced usage of brakes. The industry has already been working very intensively to come up with solutions to reduce or eliminate corrosion effects in EV. Thus, while looking at the raw materials for brake pads, careful consideration is given to their corrosion properties. Furthermore, due to regenerative braking, the temperature experienced by brake pads is comparatively lower than in internal combustion engines (ICEs). As a result, NAO non-steel materials become more attractive due to their reduced wear and enhanced corrosion properties.
In summary, while electrification of passenger cars presents its own sets of challenges, ultimately it will lead to a pronounced decrease in brake emissions when compared with ICE vehicles.
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